Steps In Writing A Technical Report

A s you read the example, keep in mind that this technical report was a requirement for CE208 at Colorado State University. No matter the topic they usually focus on conveying information with a clear purpose, to a specific audience. on report writing, Well done, Sir, if possible, please arrange more MCQs. Collect Supporting Documents. Copy - copies the selected report item to the Clipboard. The report-writing process begins with fact finding and ends with recommendations for preventing future accidents. Who Should Attend. It is the means by which details, factual reports of events orincidents are. Follow these steps to write a technical brief. The planning and writing steps can overlap, but generally, they are performed in this order. However, a long report should. Writing a Business Plan Georgia State SBDC 3 Basic Business Plan Guidelines Writing a Business Plan will probably take a lot of time. Whether it's a short 10-pager, or a major 100-plus pager, that "process" will involve the same fundamental steps. Designed by an author, the Seven Steps is a methodology that aims to change how writing is taught in Australia. Helen Grady March 31, 2004 Overview of Technical Approach Problem statement Project description Goals/objectives Project activities / steps Evaluation plan Problem Statement (research-oriented proposals) What When Why Who Why Hint: expand on your A-B-C heuristic Problem/Needs Statements Must be substantiated Must be convincing Must avoid. The Bureau of Labor Statistics reports a total of 49,500 technical writers currently and projects the. But how long should a press release be?. Writing the report 1. When writing technical documents and instructions there are several style tips you should keep in mind: Use a lot of imperative, command or direct address, kinds of writing. Technical communicators write, design, and/or edit proposals, manuals, web pages, lab reports, newsletters, and many other kinds of professional documents. 10 References to diagrams, graphs, tables and equations. Writing webs, story maps, venn diagrams, and other graphic organizers to help students plan their writing. Technical Writing Process: The simple, five-step guide that anyone can use to create technical documents such as user guides, manuals, and procedures - Kindle edition by Kieran Morgan, Sanja Spajic, Ali McCart. This article is for engineering under-graduate students and designed to ease the task of writing and preparation of their final year project reports. For less routine work the report writer should clearly identify the intended result and select an appropriate writing style. Technical Writing, sometimes called business writing, is writing for a specific purpose and with a specific goal. Writing a Scientific or technical report is a major problem for most researchers, especially when they are beginning their professional carrier. Write an effective IT due diligence report. In view of this, engineering students need to give due attention to writing superior proj-ect reports. docx Author: Kathy Block Created Date: 1/15/2015 4:00:54 PM. Produce Narratives that are one page or twenty-five pages. Based on the nature of the project and your needs, the number of writing and editing review cycles can vary. How to Critique a Research Design. report is written, a written purpose theme must exist through the report. · Write your report in proper English, including following proper grammar, complete sentences, introductory sentences, transitional sentences, proper punctuation, proper rules for capital letters and the like. There are many different types of reports, including business, scientific and research reports, but the basic steps for writing them are the same. How to Write a Technical Report. writing biology laboratory reports This is a general guide for writing most basic biology laboratory reports. : 4 A technical writer's primary task is to convey information to another person or party in the most clear and effective manner possible. The IIA's Audit Report Writing is a hands-on course that focuses on the organization and structure of audit reports, and includes case study activities for practicing the basics of audit report writing. ) Technical writing is more of a scientific process than an artistic one, which is good news. A report gives an explanation of any circumstance. What you have already seems exceedingly sparkling. a sequence of steps presented in a manner that allows the reader to perform that sequence of steps. Do you have any tips of your own to share? If so, please leave a comment below! You can always sign up for a fully functional, free trial of Articulate software. These reports do not give opinions, only the explanation on how to do something or how something is done. Writing a formal annual report for your stakeholders is very different 3. This person is looking to see to see how legitimate your technical methods are. Much of the guide consists of suggestions for presenting statistical information. Do not worry too much about the final form and language, but rather on presenting the ideas coherently and logically. Often the process is a routine that comes naturally and is not a step-by-step guide to which writers refer. Write well. You can see the number and percentage of children who "stayed constant," "progressed one step," "progressed two steps," "progressed three steps," or. Follow the instructions provided by your lecturer but use these as a guide on how to structure your report. Thomson, Napier (Primary Chief Investigator (PCI)) Curtis, Andrea (Chief Investigator (CI)). What is not covered by the Standards. Each week, we'll look at a key section of a technical report and the skills needed. Organization is critical in. The Process of Technical Writing. The purpose of this pseudo report is to explain the contents of a typical engineering report. Successful technical writing;: Technical articles, papers, reports, instruction and training manuals, and books by Tyler Gregory Hicks Provides examples of written instructions. Write your body paragraph. 4 Planning the report. If a developer is able to reproduce the bug, the bug is very likely to be fixed. The importance of good report writing for correctional officers should not be discounted as your written communication skills will speak volumes about you as an officer without you even saying a word. 1 Creating and using outlines In technical writing, outlines can serve multiple purposes. Explanatory Reports. Results: The base of the report ¥Do not underestimate the weight of the Results section! ¥The data, clearly presented, are the single most important part of a good report. A report needs to include all the essential information about the accident or near-miss. Qualities of technical report writing also includes correctnes. report may have a technical background, the author should assume unfamiliarity with related theory and procedures. It is best to read different positions. You can see the number and percentage of children who "stayed constant," "progressed one step," "progressed two steps," "progressed three steps," or. Press Enter to complete this step. Upvote (0. 01/19/2018; 2 minutes to read; In this article. Synthesis in Writing. Try to get a feel for the various views on the topic. Technical writing has four steps: Planning, writing, delivery, and archiving. Writing instructions (Technical communication) by Sue Mehlich. Leave a placeholder in the draft document for every required component (e. It can serve as a flowchart of how your products and services evolve and move through your business to physically reach your market. Writing a Report using Microsoft Word’s Tools (v1. In this course, author and senior Kelley School of Business lecturer Judy Steiner-Williams outlines the different types of business reports and then provides guidance on how to write your own from cover letter to concluding sentence. Examples of technical writing include instruction manuals, recipes, how-to guides, text books, multimedia presentations, and operating instructions. However, if you pay attention to the main rules of writing such a report, there should be no problems at all. 1-Introduction. 7 Tips To Make Your Next Report Stand Out #1 - Determine its purpose Before you do anything else, clearly define what your report should accomplish. Some of them are good, but contrary to popular belief, most of them leave much to be desired. No special technical skills are required apart from the ability to format a document using headings and numbered lists. 5 Writing the first draft. The program is in-depth, akin to a professional degree, and is intended for coaches or those interested in coaching for Emotional Intelligence. This stands for Progress. You can end your struggle with report writing – just follow our guide on simple steps and possible mistakes. Write your conclusion. Whereas you should start writing as early as possible, you don't need to put that writing in the form of a technical paper right away. A report gives an explanation of any circumstance. An SOP template will communicate to everyone the procedure format you want to use. Progress Report due Monday, November 5. Table of contents. Things that deserve consideration include the purpose of the report, the scope of the report (what. Pre-writing Steps Choose a book for your analysis - find out some basic information you will need to get started: author, title, genre. To achieve supreme excellence or perfection in anything you do, you need more than just the knowledge. There are three fundamental steps you should perform when you have a program to write: Define the output and data flows. Taking notes. write the first draft in one sitting revise 5. It provides an extensive discussion of the contents of the various main elements of a technical report and gives the recommended format. • Written using Plain English guidelines and written using the fewest possible words, phrases and paragraphs. How can a developer reproduce the bug on his or her own computer? Steps to reproduce are the most important part of any bug report. How to Write a Compelling Executive Summary In most companies, decisions are made based on executive summaries. A bulletin report in technical writing is a formal report that conveys technical information in an easy to read format. Technical Decision-Making Report (Individual Project) Summary and Overview Write a technical decision-making or evaluation report of six-to-ten (but no more than ten) pages for a diverse audience in a large and complex organization on a topic of technical or professional interest to you and to others in your field of study and/or work. Use them as a guideline or a model for preparing your own reports. The ABSTRACT is not a part of the body of the report itself. The Technical Approach Section of a Proposal TCO 341 Dr. This short document describes how to write a good report. Steps for Writing a Progress Report. The Monitoring Visit Report Template by tools4dev is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 3. Identify the purpose and main point of a report. No matter how good the information is, if it is not well formatted it can be difficult to use. Below are some guidelines for structuring your report. They can serve as a report of accountability to the organization funding the research. The first step in report writing must therefore be to consider both the writer and the reader. 11 Responses to “How to Send Tactful Emails from a Technical Support Desk” OldSailor on March 20, 2008 11:05 am. Introduction. After you add your solutions, it’s time to write the most important part of the package: the project scope. This will go a long way in not only enabling. An appendix compares several common types of graphs. This type of writing has a. Things that deserve consideration include the purpose of the report, the scope of the report (what. Redraft and edit. Users of the process documented in this Guide can proceed step by step and task by task or they can tailor this Guide to use only those portions of the process they feel are necessary. You may use content that does not belong to you while writing your technical. Below are some guidelines for structuring your report. You may use content that does not belong to you while writing your technical. Every procedure must state: the assertion tested the audit. Welcome to Writing Technical Reports - [Instructor] So you want to write a technical report. The most universal advice on writing a successful grant proposal is to present a well written, focused solution to a problem in a logical progression. Writing a Scientific or technical report is a major problem for most researchers, especially when they are beginning their professional carrier. With practice, the technical report writer learns which details to include. Identify the purpose and main point of a report. They provides access to the information before it is published elsewhere. In most companies, a defect reporting tool is used and the elements of a report can vary. Not All Volcanoes Go "BOOM!" Talk about various types of volcanoes, such as Mt. Reports give reliable, updated and useful information in a compact form. In this context, I am writing a placement report which is meant to summarize what I learned during the placement year. The purpose of this pseudo report is to explain the contents of a typical engineering report. Subheadings help readers follow your ideas. Formatting a Report Layout. There’s no need to break into a sweat yet. Whereas you should start writing as early as possible, you don't need to put that writing in the form of a technical paper right away. But how long should a press release be?. Technical writing is significantly different than other types of writing such as narrative, because technical writing is intended to impart to the reader some specific skill or ability. Technical Writing Process Steps ProEdit's technical writing services are built upon our process and reflect the industry's best practices. In any report, a minimum number of words – which sufficiently presents the message accurately and precisely – is needed. This is a general guide for what you will see in journal articles or dissertations. The report-writing process begins with fact finding and ends with recommendations for preventing future accidents. In report writing, you also must consider clarity, organization, and content. Do not assume that you will get a marvelous idea from the secondary material. Download pdf version for print. The importance of writing the report consists in providing legal and technical evidence of the project's vitality, sustainability and cost-effectiveness. Learn how to do anything at StepByStep. ADVERTISEMENTS: “Research report is a research document that contains basic aspects of the research project”. There is a useful acronym– SMART– that can help you outline your scope. Writing a formal annual report for your stakeholders is very different 3. combined technical/financial evaluation report; (b) for contracts subject to post-review by the Bank: (i) a combined technical/financial report to be reviewed or audited subsequently. For you to learn how to write a lab report, your methodology should offer appropriate sequential criteria for assessing the data gathered. A report gives an explanation of any circumstance. This guide provides guidelines to engineering students for writing technical reports (for example on vacation work, experiments, design projects and final year projects), theses and dissertations. Synthesis in Writing. A bulletin report in technical writing is a formal report that conveys technical information in an easy to read format. The technical writing process is essential to deliver accurate and clear information to large groups of people. One good way to do this is to write a periodic progress report that describes your successes and failures. It takes a lot of work to create a clear, accurate, engaging piece of technical writing. 8 The report layout. Even if your project did not go as well as you had hoped, there is no reason why you should not score a high mark for you report if you are prepared to work. Thus, the report will have to spend a lot of time explaining some of the technical details in everyday language. Select a topic early. Writing Instructions. Collecting published. Technical writing jobs may require candidates to have both a degree and knowledge of a technical field, such as engineering, computer science, or medicine. Writing a Weather Report. Decide the Objective. The purpose of this pseudo report is to explain the contents of a typical engineering report. Online Technical Writing: Instructions The focus for this chapter is one of the most important of all uses of technical writing--instructions. Perhaps you have basic knowledge of technical writing and are looking to build a career as a technical writer, or perhaps you have been working as a technical writer for several years and are looking to expand your skillset. Online Writing Lab, Writing a Research Paper, Purdue University, West Lafayette, IN, (September 17, 2004) StumbleUpon Website overview: Since 1996 the Study Guides and Strategies Website has been researched, authored, maintained and supported as an international, learner-centric, educational public service. This is the fundamental criterion • The objective should be clearly defined and the completed studies should be reported in full • A technical paper normally makes 2 or 3 important points (these points should appear three times in the paper). You may use a special incident reporting form, and it might be quite extensive. Formatting a Report Layout. Improving the overall appearance of reports. The Monitoring Visit Report Template by tools4dev is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 3. Writing a paper takes time, and rushing through it will probably end with poor results. That's why we want to share with you how to write the ideal bug report. [email protected] FORMAT FOR TEXT · The text for each Report shall consist of four major sections. 6 Easy Steps to Write Test Summary Report (TSR) or Test Closure Report – Free Sample TSR to download Shilpa May 14, 2018 Software Testing 1 Comment In this article, we will learn what is Test Summary or Test Closure /Completion Report. Reading a poorly written technical document is harder, and probably more painful than writing one. Check out our article review samples to gain a better understanding of how to review articles yourself. your report; your written report needs to be both a “narrative” (telling the story of your project) and an “argument” (providing a logical justification of the steps you have undertaken to solve your chosen problem). The value of your work rests squarely on how well it conforms to the principles of the scientific method. define the key points and the main message outline 3. It is the reason why you are doing the research and signals where you hope to be by the end. If you would like to learn how to write a business report in English follow these tips and use the example report as a template on which to base your own business report. The importance of writing the report consists in providing legal and technical evidence of the project's vitality, sustainability and cost-effectiveness. Only after you read our guide on how to write a progress report will you be able to do it properly. A technical report's back matter accomplishes 2 purposes: (1) it gives credit to sources and (1) it presents materials that would become a digression if they appeared in the body section. How to Write a Technical Report. Babs, the short answer is, no — a “scope document” as such is specific to tech writing. To begin with writing a sample feasibility report, first you need to create a title page that provides a descriptive yet concise title, your (i. Report Writing Format. While most of the following apply in general, they have been written with BTech/MTech/PhD students in mind. Table of contents. Acknowledgment: Include only if special help was received from an individual or group. The pain of writing comes largely as a result of bad writing habits. Scientific writing must be accurate. This guide has been written to provide a general introduction to writing reports. This section explains the first four. One is help the writer organize ideas and evidence, and the other to communicate your plan of development clearly to the person who has the authority to move your project forward. Decide which kind of report you're writing. Steps involved in writing good business report The following steps are involved in report business writing. This is much easier said than done, and finding the focus is often the most difficult piece of the puzzle. Please take the time to read them carefully. Writing your report The report writing process is fairly similar to that of other types of written assessment. Anyone who reads your report (a lieutenant, reporter, or attorney) will be impressed by your professionalism and writing ability. In writing a full-length engineering report, you should start with a report outline, then proceed to a rough draft. The process Provide background. The process to write the report is called feasibility study reporting. Progress Report – The Basics. Remember that the purpose of a defect report is to get an issue fixed as soon as possible so that customers will continue using the software. Make it as professionally sound as you can. By Scholastic Parents Staff. ) Topic Possibilities on the Web Here are some links to web sites that might give you some interesting topic ideas (let me know if you find additional ones): New, Interesting, and Alternative Technologies. • Ignore neatness, spelling, and sentence structure--get the ideas down. The planning stage of report writing is the most time-consuming. standard operating procedures (SOPs) for writing technical manuals. WRITING THE REPORT 1. Jump start your report with this attractive accessible template, with formatting already set up for you. Up to 100 hours or more is not uncommon for a new business that requires a lot of research. In addition to describing the conventional rules about the format and content of a lab report, we’ll also attempt to convey why these rules exist, so you’ll get a clearer, more dependable idea of how to approach this writing situation. A scientific report is a document that describes the process, progress, and or results of technical or scientific research or the state of a technical or scientific research problem. Material not pertinent to the case should be discarded. Technical writing includes step-by-step assembly instructions, which need to be carefully crafted to ensure that the end-user can complete the steps safely and accurately. Do not assume that you will get a marvelous idea from the secondary material. Writing a Capstone Report Step by Step Writing a capstone report is tedious not to mention time-consuming task because it requires plenty of research and serious writing on your part. Research Wizard 4. TECHNICAL REPORT ON WIRELESS FIDELITY (WI-FI) BROADBAND NETWORK MANAGEMENT By Adedayo O. Use a variety of research materials that are relevant to your topic and take notes. Ann Arbor: U Michigan P, 1994. Online Writing Lab Creating an Outline Once a topic has been chosen, ideas have been generated through brainstorming and free writing, and a working thesis has been created, the last step a writer can perform in the prewriting stage is creating an outline. The report is divided into sections so information can be easily found. This short document describes how to write a good report. writing biology laboratory reports This is a general guide for writing most basic biology laboratory reports. An informal report can be used to share important information with one person or a small group of people. The technical writing process is essential to deliver accurate and clear information to large groups of people. When writing a report, your aim should be to be absolutely clear. Writing a Geological Report. , general public Taking into account the audience's limitations and the message you want to convey, choose an appropriate outline. Chapter 1 started with general background knowledge and objectives of the SIWES programme chapter 2 of the report talk about the general description of the company and service chapter 3 and 4 give the a detail of the activities carried out during the programme and all. When writing a report or instructions for anyone, catch their attention immediately. Luckily for us, writing is a skill. If you need assistance with something other than reporting a possible security vulnerability, please see the statement below that most closely matches your situation and expand the statement for next steps. Writing the Report This section deals with the next step, writing the important sections of your report: the introduction, conclusion and abstract. Title: Be specific. There are a few good instruction guides on line, [1] and [2], if a tutorial is needed; however, the highlights of technical paper writing and a few notes on many of the common errors are given in this article. A s you read the example, keep in mind that this technical report was a requirement for CE208 at Colorado State University. It is essential for communication, which is necessary for maintaining transparency. Our programs provide the skills and experience needed in the workforce today through hands-on education with flexible learning options. Technical paper • The must be originality in the paper. It requires careful planning to create a document that effectively communicates a purpose and meets the needs of the. Learn to status your projects effectively and you have a competitive edge that goes beyond the standard project management toolkit. Acknowledgment: Include only if special help was received from an individual or group. Recall the six ethical principles identified by the Society of Technical Writers. Learn how to write a well-constructed business report. Professional One-to-One Writing Help with Report Topics Many online agencies offer assistance with writing reports, essays, dissertations and other kinds of academic writing. Although this brochure outlines the key features of a Design Report, always check whether your lecturer, or. The main purpose of this document is to make you aware of LATEX commands that may be useful. Technical writing is performed by a technical writer (or technical author) and is the process of writing and sharing information in a professional setting. Like them, the report is divided into sections, each of which provides a specific type of information. Writing Tips For Economics Research Papers Plamen Nikolov, Harvard University y June 10, 2013 1 General Tips about Writing Style When I read your term papers, I look for your ability to motivate your question using economic. Additional Resources for Technical Writing Samples. Topics include: principles of good writing, tricks for writing faster and with less anxiety, the format of a scientific manuscript, and issues in publication and peer review. yet how approximately: The "Sanitize" section lasts for the "Sanitise Step Time". If he were writing a formal report for his client, he might go into some detail here, but since it's an internal report, and. The essentials of effective report writing and steps involved in report writing are discussed in detail. If you find any bug while testing, then need not wait to write a detail bug report later. It is essential for communication, which is necessary for maintaining transparency. , Director, Office of Undergraduate Research An abstract is a short summary of your completed research. Preparation of the final outline: It is the next step in writing the research report “Outlines are the framework upon which long written works are constructed. Typical short reports have. *Make a list of ALL items used in the lab. Write My Paper for Me - We Care About the Quality We promote ourselves as a college paper writing service that has earned its global popularity by providing superior quality articles, reviews, and papers. Final year students often find it difficult to choose a suitable research topic for their psychology lab report, and usually attempt to make things more complicated than they need to be. Proper Form: A report must be in the proper form. A report gives an explanation of any circumstance. Business reports, research papers, technical reports, book reports all differ in what content must be included in them. Technical report allows you to provide all the technical information that you need but you need to be sure that you are using the right format. If you would like to learn how to write a business report in English follow these tips and use the example report as a template on which to base your own business report. Another aspect of report writing that is somewhat different from other business communications is the reading patterns of various audiences. Writing a report from survey data. 0 Unported License. Interruptions, fatigue, and the stress of dealing with offenders and emergencies can get in the way of good writing. Five Steps for Technical Writing (Adapted from Creating technical documentation in five easy steps and Magic waterfalls under Creative Commons Attribution-Share Alike 3. Your defect report needs to be clear and easy to read. A good competitive analysis is a scouting report of the actual market terrain that your company must navigate in order to be successful. Report writing, or just communicating findings in general, is essential to the digital forensics field. Faculty may assign Writing Commons for their composition, business, STEM/Technical Writing, and creative writing courses. Strive for clarity, precision and accuracy. The following steps will not guarantee a good paper, but they will eliminate the most common problems encountered in bad papers. This section explains the first four. Why Prefer Our Technical Report Writing Service? Today, students and professionals seeking help with technical report writing can quickly get affordable help online. Helens, a powerful stratovolcano that explodes with fury, hurling gas, rocks and ash high into the air. Good written communication is essential so that Ministry advisors can interpret and act on the information you have gathered. 1 A quick guide to writing a psychology lab-report 1. Interruptions, fatigue, and the stress of dealing with offenders and emergencies can get in the way of good writing. Participants in this seminar will write throughout the session and learn what it takes to create documents that are understood in a single reading. Return to Business & Technical Writing · Print/Mobile-Friendly Version. Moxley, Writing Commons is a viable alternative to expensive writing textbooks. Audit Report Writing Guide 1 Introduction This Audit Report Writing Guide offers guidance on preparing audit reports for the Ministry of Health so that each report provides clear, consistent and helpful information. Instead, it should be informative and clear. Tips on writing a good technical report For you to have a good technical report, you should avoid overusing different fonts in your work Use of headings and subheadings is also important because it plans your points. In each case, references should be cited where applicable. is your source for writers!. Write the report. And there is no person better equipped to write one than a market-savvy technical writer. The 5-Step Writing Process: From Brainstorming to Publishing. Proper Form: A report must be in the proper form. A report gives an explanation of any circumstance. EXAMPLES: Q1. But writing any incident report involves four basic steps, and those are the focus of today’s post. ) Technical writing is more of a scientific process than an artistic one, which is good news. What you have already seems exceedingly sparkling. Report Writing 17 Long-Form Report and Reporting Documents The basic reporting documents are: • Memoranda • Exhibits, documents, or enclosures • Indexes • Cover page • Transmittal letter The long-form report will consist of copies of these documents. 30+ Sample Report Writing Format Templates – PDF Report writing format differs from one subject or category in the academic, but all through out, one thing is common to them, they present all the facts collected in an organized manner and maintains the formality of writing the content of the report writing from the space, fonts and. Writing a formal annual report for your stakeholders is very different 3. We’ll also share a list of the six items included in the Testlio bug report template. And thirdly at 23 common types of report, including: Annual reports/ Appraisal reports. Topography, vegetation, and current land use, including the high. Report writing 1. It is not possible to explain all of these on a few pages. Writing Methodology Allows Verification. The M-STEP is a 21st Century online test given for the first time in the Spring of 2015. Make your own internal outline including who is responsible for which sections. Not All Volcanoes Go "BOOM!" Talk about various types of volcanoes, such as Mt. Test report template - In this article you will learn a simple 12 Steps Guide to writing an effective test summary report. This will help them to identify their weak areas and will help them to score better in examination. Are you looking for Apprenticeships & Traineeships. Recognize the importance of teamwork in technical communication. The headings help the reader to locate relevant information quickly. Perimeter Institute for Theoretical Physics 463,128 views. Writing Process Sample W riting Process Prewriting • Make notes, scribble ideas: start generating text, drawing figures, sketching out presentation ideas. The first step in report writing must therefore be to consider both the writer and the reader. Technical report writing is no easy feat. Material must be arranged in a systematic order. Remember, when it comes to technical writing, audience analysis is essential and the foundational step to document development. Whatever the medium for dis­ seminating and archiving the report paper copy, diskette, CD-ROM, or on­. It is written in a fluent. Wise Words About Writing Technical Requirements Documents Try Smartsheet for Free Preparing technical requirement documents (also known as product requirement documents) is a typical part of any project to create or revise a software system, or other types of tangible products. The fact-checkers, whose work is more and more important for those who prefer facts over lies, police the line between fact and falsehood on a day-to-day basis, and do a great job. Today, my small contribution is to pass along a very good overview that reflects on one of Trump’s favorite overarching falsehoods. Namely: Trump describes an America in which everything was going down the tubes under  Obama, which is why we needed Trump to make America great again. And he claims that this project has come to fruition, with America setting records for prosperity under his leadership and guidance. “Obama bad; Trump good” is pretty much his analysis in all areas and measurement of U.S. activity, especially economically. Even if this were true, it would reflect poorly on Trump’s character, but it has the added problem of being false, a big lie made up of many small ones. Personally, I don’t assume that all economic measurements directly reflect the leadership of whoever occupies the Oval Office, nor am I smart enough to figure out what causes what in the economy. But the idea that presidents get the credit or the blame for the economy during their tenure is a political fact of life. Trump, in his adorable, immodest mendacity, not only claims credit for everything good that happens in the economy, but tells people, literally and specifically, that they have to vote for him even if they hate him, because without his guidance, their 401(k) accounts “will go down the tubes.” That would be offensive even if it were true, but it is utterly false. The stock market has been on a 10-year run of steady gains that began in 2009, the year Barack Obama was inaugurated. But why would anyone care about that? It’s only an unarguable, stubborn fact. Still, speaking of facts, there are so many measurements and indicators of how the economy is doing, that those not committed to an honest investigation can find evidence for whatever they want to believe. Trump and his most committed followers want to believe that everything was terrible under Barack Obama and great under Trump. That’s baloney. Anyone who believes that believes something false. And a series of charts and graphs published Monday in the Washington Post and explained by Economics Correspondent Heather Long provides the data that tells the tale. The details are complicated. Click through to the link above and you’ll learn much. But the overview is pretty simply this: The U.S. economy had a major meltdown in the last year of the George W. Bush presidency. Again, I’m not smart enough to know how much of this was Bush’s “fault.” But he had been in office for six years when the trouble started. So, if it’s ever reasonable to hold a president accountable for the performance of the economy, the timeline is bad for Bush. GDP growth went negative. Job growth fell sharply and then went negative. Median household income shrank. The Dow Jones Industrial Average dropped by more than 5,000 points! U.S. manufacturing output plunged, as did average home values, as did average hourly wages, as did measures of consumer confidence and most other indicators of economic health. (Backup for that is contained in the Post piece I linked to above.) Barack Obama inherited that mess of falling numbers, which continued during his first year in office, 2009, as he put in place policies designed to turn it around. By 2010, Obama’s second year, pretty much all of the negative numbers had turned positive. By the time Obama was up for reelection in 2012, all of them were headed in the right direction, which is certainly among the reasons voters gave him a second term by a solid (not landslide) margin. Basically, all of those good numbers continued throughout the second Obama term. The U.S. GDP, probably the single best measure of how the economy is doing, grew by 2.9 percent in 2015, which was Obama’s seventh year in office and was the best GDP growth number since before the crash of the late Bush years. GDP growth slowed to 1.6 percent in 2016, which may have been among the indicators that supported Trump’s campaign-year argument that everything was going to hell and only he could fix it. During the first year of Trump, GDP growth grew to 2.4 percent, which is decent but not great and anyway, a reasonable person would acknowledge that — to the degree that economic performance is to the credit or blame of the president — the performance in the first year of a new president is a mixture of the old and new policies. In Trump’s second year, 2018, the GDP grew 2.9 percent, equaling Obama’s best year, and so far in 2019, the growth rate has fallen to 2.1 percent, a mediocre number and a decline for which Trump presumably accepts no responsibility and blames either Nancy Pelosi, Ilhan Omar or, if he can swing it, Barack Obama. I suppose it’s natural for a president to want to take credit for everything good that happens on his (or someday her) watch, but not the blame for anything bad. Trump is more blatant about this than most. If we judge by his bad but remarkably steady approval ratings (today, according to the average maintained by 538.com, it’s 41.9 approval/ 53.7 disapproval) the pretty-good economy is not winning him new supporters, nor is his constant exaggeration of his accomplishments costing him many old ones). I already offered it above, but the full Washington Post workup of these numbers, and commentary/explanation by economics correspondent Heather Long, are here. On a related matter, if you care about what used to be called fiscal conservatism, which is the belief that federal debt and deficit matter, here’s a New York Times analysis, based on Congressional Budget Office data, suggesting that the annual budget deficit (that’s the amount the government borrows every year reflecting that amount by which federal spending exceeds revenues) which fell steadily during the Obama years, from a peak of $1.4 trillion at the beginning of the Obama administration, to $585 billion in 2016 (Obama’s last year in office), will be back up to $960 billion this fiscal year, and back over $1 trillion in 2020. (Here’s the New York Times piece detailing those numbers.) Trump is currently floating various tax cuts for the rich and the poor that will presumably worsen those projections, if passed. As the Times piece reported: